Digital Media Design


Stop Frame Animation – Editing & Output

Stop Frame Animation

The Animation ‘Books & Toys’


Animation Evaluation – Stop Frame Animation

With the completed animation photographed and now stored on a DVD disk in jpeg format, these images were then imported into iStopMotion ready to be processed at 6 FPS into the video sequence ready for output to a video editor. Initially the idea was to output the file in DV format for further video processing in iMovieHD. However first attempts although successful were not of the highest quality and so alternative applications were investigated for example Windows Movie Maker. Windows Movie Maker was used to produce the animation video sequence and even though there was not as much control available over the frame rate as iStopMotion offers, however it did produce a good quality sequence ready to be outputted in AVI format. The AVI format was also found to give a better quality video sequence than that produced using iStopMotion.

Started by importing the video file into Final Cut Express for video editing and adding the soundtrack, with a regard to the runtime of the video sequence this was edited to be within the 1 minute plus or minus 10 seconds which involved cutting over 30 seconds from the original sequence. The soundtrack was then imported and added, editing for the change in the length of the video sequence. Opening titles and end credits were then added.

Running the completed animation for the first time in Final Cut Express the quality appeared to be very good and so the completed video was then exported in the PAL 4:3 and MOV file format. Unfortunately after several attempts at exporting the sequence in a variety of formats the quality of the output was not as hoped and so alternative video editing applications were investigated.

iStopmotion Screenshot

Fig 1. iStopmotion Screenshot

Fig 2. - Windows Movie Maker V2.6 Screenshot of animation project

Fig 2. Windows Movie Maker V2.6 Screenshot of animation project

Final Cut Express 4.0 Screenshot

Fig 3. Final Cut Express 4.0 Screenshot

Adobe’s Premiere Pro (For the PC) was used as an alternative video editing application to produce the final versions of the completed animation. This application has many of the features you can find in Final Cut Express and more. With full control over the editing process and with added features it is possible to add video special effects and also includes templates for titles. After adding the soundtrack the final edited video sequence was exported using Photo JPEG settings and PAL DV format with the soundtrack set to the 44,100 sample rate and 16 bit stereo. The resulting movie in QuickTime format that .MOV was output for burning onto DVD. By changing the frame size several versions of the movie were exported in different sizes for possible alternative viewing for example embedding within a website, for mobile devices etc.

Using this movie from Premiere Pro as the source file, this was then imported into the application Any Video Convertor (For PC) for conversion to the MP4 format for uploading to the Internet. Any Video Convertor is a free to use application which can be downloaded from

Any Video Convertor is a free program but it does come with a limited number of formats compared with the pay for full version. The full version has more format choices and gives more control over the conversion process.

Animation Output – Stop Frame Animation

To output the animation iDVD was used to produce a DVD of the final version of the animation along with some of the trials and less successful versions of the animation.
The internet ready versions were also burnt onto CD using  Nero and also uploaded onto YouTube and embedded into personal websites including Facebook and MySpace and on finally on the website produced for the Website Design Unit.

Adobe Premiere Pro CS3 Screenshot of Animation Project

Fig 4. Adobe Premiere Pro CS3 Screenshot of Animation Project

Anyvideo - Video format conversion app Screenshot

Fig 5. Anyvideo - Video format conversion app Screenshot

iDVD Screenshot - used for animation DVD creation

Fig 6. iDVD Screenshot - used for animation DVD creation

By the end of the process several versions of the animation was produced. The first version was initially too long and was subsequently edited to run within the 1 minute guideline excluding titles. To this purpose a whole sequence was removed from the original animation but as this was similar to another sequence within the animation its removal was not obvious. The final animation is actually 1 minute 12 seconds long including opening titles and end credits.

As well as the video going through a number of changes involving re-editing a number of times before the final sequence being selected and so the soundtrack also went through several iterations before the final selection was made. Initially the animation’s soundtrack was to be a music backing track only, but it was decided that by adding individual sounds for some of the toys this would add an interesting element to the overall animation. Sounds were sourced from a variety of sources including Garageband and a number of websites offering free sound clips. Some of the sounds were eventually discarded as too many sounds seemed to becom a discordant noise, each overlapping with the backing track and so on. With this in mind the revised sound clips were limited to the key characters in the animation that is the toys.

The titles for the initial versions were produced on iMovieHD and were basic white on black scrolling titles and although displaying the information were discarded for the final animation as they seemed to be fairly uninspiring and so new titles were developed using Adobe’s Premiere Pro. The new titles were chosen to emulate the subject of the animation with its bright colours and toys theme. The titles designed included some animation effects as well which also tied in well particularly in the opening sequence.

The final animation was the product of more than a dozen variations before deciding that the original brief had been fulfilled. Meeting the requirements determined in the pre-production process and true to the original concept and to which the final animation comes very close to.

In conclusion the final animation produced which involved several trials and versions, works really well with its new sound track. The only real problem from an editing and output point of view came from the initial photography which involved the shooting of the images over a two day period, where there is a noticeable change in the lighting, which is also apparent in one of the sequences at the beginning of the animation. In addition there was a small change in the position of the camera overnight which was also slightly visible at the beginning of the animation.

The processes used and applications chosen to produce the final animation were crucial in producing a good quality animation as was the choice of output format. Choosing the correct output format made the difference between a good quality animation and a poor quality and in some cases blurred video with poor quality sound. There are some changes which I’d consider vital in the future; these are to either shoot the entire animation on the same day and with good quality lighting. Or alternatively film within a totally controlled environment in which the lighting is both totally artificial and fully controllable. Finally make every effort to totally lock the camera in position making unplanned movement of the camera impossible.


Digital Sound – Music and Audio, Digital Sampling

Digital Sound


Fig.1. Sound Waves.

Fig.1. Sound Waves.

What is Sound? Sound is caused by a change in air pressure. When something vibrates the air pressure is changed, the picture, fig.1.shows how the beating of a drum causes changes in air pressure, the harder the drum is hit the more compressed the air becomes and so the louder the sound wave is, in this case represented by a sine wave the more compressed the air waves the higher the peak and vice versa the less the air is compressed the deeper the trough. It should be noted that sound is the movement of air molecules or for example the molecules in water and that Sound waves can travel through a variety of mediums including water, metal, glass etc. but not in a vacuum. As there are no air molecules in a vacuum there can be no sound.

Fig.1. Sound Waves. Rockwell International Accessed 19/03/2010

1.0 Definition of what sampling is and how to sample/record

When we talk about sampling we are usually talking about Digital sampling these days, a basic description is that a specifically designed application listens to the sound and takes a slice of the sound wave, think of it as a snapshot of the sound wave. The length of the snapshot is measured in bits and the number of snapshots taken is called the sampling rate and is measured in seconds. The more snapshots, that is the higher the sampling rate the better the quality of the sound (Fidelity) as it more closely resembles the original sound waveform.

Fig.2. Picture represents the difference in quality of the sampled sound depending on the bit-depth used.

Fig.2. Picture represents the difference in quality of the sampled sound depending on the bit-depth used.

Fig.2. Picture represents the difference in quality of the sampled sound depending on the bit-depth used. What is audio. Accessed 22/03/2010

The sampling rate varies but typically a CD is sampled at 44,100 times per second at 16 bits. These samples are then stored by either on the CD itself or say on a computers hard drive for possible re-sampling and/or manipulation by effects processors.

An example of Analogue sampling can be found in the effects pedals used by guitarists, some of which remain in use today examples of these being Reverb and Phaser units where a proportion of the incoming signal is affected or indeed the whole signal is shifted out of phase or added to the original signal to produce the reverb effect. Other examples include echo units which do similar things to the signal although it does not change the actual sound but just samples the incoming sound and adds a copy to the outgoing signal but with a delay that can be adjusted to give a varying echo.

Sampled sounds can be used in conjunction with a range of effects systems to produce unique sounds for the Radio, TV and Film industries. Sampled sounds can be assigned to keys on an electronic keyboard – either a different sound for each key or a single sampled sound which is then processed by the keyboard to give a complete range of sounds.

2.0 Analogue Vs Digital

Analogue Sound

Fig.3. Analogue Vs Digital Sound.

Fig.3. Analogue Vs Digital Sound.

Fig.3. Analogue Vs Digital Sound. Accessed 19/03/2010

Analogue is a continuous medium and Digital is made up of steps. To sample or record sound it must first be converted from sound waves into an electrical signal. In Fig.3. There are two diagrams; the top one is of a Analogue signal which has been converted into an electrical signal for example by using a microphone which converts the movement created by sound waves impacting on a material such as thin plastic inside the microphone which in turn creates an electrical signal either by varying the capacitance in a condenser microphone or moves either the coils or a magnetic core inside a coil which then also generates an electrical signal. This continuous signal can now be recorded by using this electrical signal to for example move a needle, scratching an electrical representation of the sound onto the surface of a vinyl disk or onto magnetic tape using a recording head which is a form of electro magnet which marks the surface of tape with a signal.

Fig.4. Cross Section of Dynamic Microphone.

Fig.4. Cross Section of Dynamic Microphone.

Fig.4. Cross Section of Dynamic Microphone. Accessed 19/03/2010

Digital Sound

A digital signal starts off as an Analogue signal that is a sound wave converted to an electrical signal and this electrical signal is then converted into a digital signal by sampling it at a determined rate. That is the number of times it is sampled in a second. If we look again at Fig.3. The bottom diagram shows a representation of what a digital signal looks like compared with the analogue signal above it. You can see how the waveform has been converted into steps with each step approximating the peak or trough of the original signal. This approximation also supplies us with a clue as to why many sound purists prefer analogue over digital, as the analogue signal is continuous or step less while digital is an approximation of the original sound and as such does not contain the richness of the original analogue sound. Of course this can be alleviated to some extent by sampling at a higher rate and so more steps will be produced therefore more closely following the original signals waveform.

Digital signals are made up from 1’s and 0’s that is Binary code, so each one of those steps in Fig.3. is made up from a series of these 1’s and 0’s. This Binary code is the language of computers and so this allows the digital sound or data to be stored and manipulated by a computer. Digital sound can be recorded onto a computers hard disk, flash drive (USB Key), CD and DVD disk. As the digital sound is made up of 1’s and 0’s it is also possible to reduce the size of the data (or Digital sound file) by removing excess 1’s and 0’s for example the Mp3 format. The computer will remember to add these back in when the sound needs to be reproduced as will other sound reproducing equipment for example an iPod as it will recognise that the file is in an Mp3 format and so it will know to add those 1’s and 0’s back in during playback.

Fig.5. Copy degradation experienced when copying from a copy of a copy

Fig.5. Copy degradation experienced when copying from a copy of a copy

Fig.5. Copy degradation experienced when copying from a copy of a copy etc. Car on the left is a copy and you can see the pixilation of the image compared with the image of the car on the right. One of the key differences between Analogue and Digital recording is unlike Analogue recordings it does not matter how many times you record a digital sound file it remains at the same quality. Whereas an Analogue sound file loses it’s quality (Fidelity) the more times that it is copied

that is a master file when copied becomes a 2nd generation copy a copy from this becomes a 3rd generation and so on. This occurs in the same way that when the copy of a document is not quite as good as the original and a copy taken from this copy is even less perfect. This is best viewed by images in Fig.5. which is of two images of the same car, the one on the right is the original and the image on the left is a copy of a copy of a copy as you can see the final copy is very unclear and this represents the degradation in sound quality (loss of Fidelity) which you can expect when copying analogue sound files. For this reason for example, a music producer will have a master copy and it is from this that copies are made so that the copies are at worst 2nd generation copies.

3.0 Programmes and Equipment used to sampling & re-sampling


Fig.6. Audacity 1.3.11-beta Sound sampling and editing software application Audacity

Fig.6. Audacity 1.3.11-beta Sound sampling and editing software application Audacity

Fig.6. Audacity 1.3.11-beta Sound sampling and editing software application Audacity is a free open source application that can sample and re-sample digital sound and to facilitate the editing of sound files and even offers several effects including Echo, pitch and tempo changes etc. Coming back to its main features Audacity can let you in a non-destructive way edit digital sound tracks, cutting and pasting sections, adding new tracks with other digital sound files to enable mixing etc.

It is also possible to re-sample sound files by selecting the track to resample and then from the Track menu select resample and this will pop up another menu box where you are able to select a different sampling rate from 8000 to 96,000. Another option is to be able to export a sound file in different formats including .WAV (uncompressed 16 bit) and Mp3 (Compressed).

Audacity can do more than just re-sample sound it is also possible to carry out non-destructive editing which means unlike editing of old where say a tape was cut and new sections of tape added or removed in a process known as splicing. In non-destructive editing a section of the sound waveform can be cut and pasted from and into tracks. Alternatively tracks from another music file can be imported and ether inserted into the original track or added as another track and therefore effectively mixed with the original tracks.

Pro Tools

A more professional application called Pro Tools does very similar things to Audacity but takes it several stages further also to having it’s own Analogue to Digital convertor, superior in quality to a Mac or PC’s own internal hardware called an M-Box. Pro Tools is an industry standard sound editing application used by TV, Film and music production companies to create and edit professional quality sound and music.

Fig.7. Pro Tools screenshot

Fig.7. Pro Tools screenshot

Fig.7. Pro Tools screenshot, courtesy of Accessed 22/03/10/2010

There are many other sound editing and re-sampling programs many of which are free to use or open source which include:-

  • Adobe Audition
  • iTunes
  • Goldwave
  • Microsoft Media Player
  • Sony Soundforge 9.0
  • WavePad

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College Research Paper – Facebook Trust & Privacy by Ian Hunt

College Research Paper

This is an example of my work before going onto University. Although I received good marks for this at the time many of the examples conclusions and data is now dated having been superseded by Facebooks changes to Privacy settings/options. But the core research remains true ‘do you trust Facebook with your personal data’ ?


Trust and Privacy


Ian Hunt

Access to HE. Media Studies. CJC3FH001A
Unit Title: Independent Study HC7/3/WW/081 Course Tutor: Patrick Peiro.
Completed: 14th April 2010

College Research Paper


1.0 Introduction
1.1 Key Questions
2.0 Methods
2.1 Primary Research.
2.2 Facebook Privacy Questionnaires.
2.3 Internet research from Facebooks own Help and Information pages
2.4 Confirm the validity of information obtained on Facebooks pages from alternative Internet resources.
2.4 Privacy issues and guides sourced from Library sources.
3.0 Results & Discussions
3.1 Facebook a short History
3.2 Survey Results
3.3 News Media discussion on Privacy/Trust
4.0 Further Discussion & Conclusions
4.1 Privacy
4.11 Facebook Adverts
4.12 Facebook Applications and 3rd Party Applications
4.2 Trust
4.3 Recent Events Regarding Privacy
4.31 What has not changed?
4.4 Final conclusions
5.0 Bibliography
6.0 Appendix

List of illustrations’

Fig 1: Total Internet Usage
Fig 2: Targeted advertising
Fig 3: Advertising Demographics
Fig 4: Age related targeted advertising
Fig 5: Online gaming advertising
Fig 6: Facebook Applications and 3rd Party Applications
Fig 7: New Privacy Announcement
Fig 8: New Privacy Update
Fig 9: Privacy Sharing
Fig 10: Privacy Search

1.0 Introduction

Is the growth in Social Network websites a good thing? With new services from Google and Microsoft soon to join the established social networking sites Myspace, Twitter, Bebo, Plaxo and Facebook are users right to trust these companies (in all cases Global Corporations) with their personal data. What are these Social Networking sites using this data for now and what in the future could they do with this personal information.

There is also the question, is using a social networking site a good and safe use of your time on the internet? For instance 17% of all current usage on the Internet has been attributed in a recent Nielsen’s study (2009), to be on Social Networking and Blogging websites. Based on recent trends this usage is expected grow to as much as 50% within a year.

1.1 Key Questions

What are the risks of using Social Networking sites such as Facebook in regard to Privacy and Data Security?
Why do over 150 Million users [log in each and everyday, posting over 40 Million status updates, personal information, emails and online chat] trust Facebook with their personal data? Facebook Statistics. [Accessed December 2009]

To try and answer these questions and by narrowing down the subject by looking in more detail at Data Security and Privacy issues of one of the Social Network sites the research will be conducted upon Facebook. As Facebook is now the leading Social Networking site with the most users, now in excess of 350 million users (December 2009 figures).
What are, if any are the rewards in regard to Facebooks new Privacy features introduced in December 2009?

2.0 Methods

2.1    Primary research including personal experience of being a Facebook user, the interaction with a growing number of Facebook friends and by also drawing upon their experiences of being a Facebook user. Conducted through both informal and formal discussion groups and interviews.
2.2    The production of an Online Survey/Questionnaire using an external Website to gather data     on key Privacy and Trust issues.
2.3    Using the huge Resource which is the Internet. Research from Facebooks own Press,     Privacy and Statistics web pages.
2.4    Backup/Confirm the research conducted on Facebooks pages using other Media sources on     the Internet including the BBC, the Newspaper Media and the UK’s specialists Media pages.
2.5    Investigation from Library resources including books, journals and news articles.

3.0 Results

3.1 Facebook a short history

Facebook was started in February 2004 from a Harvard University dormitory by founders Mark Zuckerberg, Dustin Moskovitz, Chris Hughes and Eduardo Saverin. Funded initially by Peter Thiel a co-founder of PayPal is an Entrepreneur and Hedge fund manager who invested $500,000 in Facebook and currently sits on their board.
There were doubts surrounding the originality of Facebooks development following a claim from the founders of ConnectU citing Mark Zuckerberg of developing Facebook from their idea, an out of court settlement suspected of being in the region of $65 Million resolved this claim. By BRAD STONE – Facebook to Settle Thorny Lawsuit Over Its Origins. The New York Times – Published April 7, 2008, 8:46 am [Accessed December 2009]
Facebook is currently valued at $9.5 Billion having dropped to as low as $3.7 Billion at the start of the recession from a previous high valuation of $15 Billion placed upon it by Microsoft in 2007. Cade Metz. Facebook value plummets $5bn  [Accessed December 2009]
Within a year Facebook had grown to over a 1 million users in 2005 and today its membership stands at over 350 million based on login data collected within the last 30 days (at 15/12/2009). It has a global reach and holds the personal data of 100’s of millions of it’s users on its computers in Palo Alto California. Facebook Statistics. [Accessed December 2009]
Facebook’s global reach has not been welcomed by everyone with countries including China, Syria and Iran blocking access to the site. Some companies have also blocked access to the site to prevent workers from using their work time to update their Facebook status. By JPOST.COM STAFF.  Syrian gov’t blocks use of Facebook Jerusalem Post – Nov 24, 2007 11:05 | Updated Nov 24, 2007 11:59  [Accessed December 2009]
Facebook is still growing employing 1000’s across its offices both in USA and other locations across the World.
December 2009 Facebook introduces new Privacy settings allowing a user to personalise how and to who they share information with by adding individual privacy settings to the publisher box on your profile status and wall pages.
3.2 Survey results
Survey results were obtained from an online survey hosted on the Survey Monkey ( website over a 30 day period during November 2009. A link to the survey was also posted on Facebook’s wall and group pages. Link information was also emailed to personal contacts requesting them to go online and complete the survey.

Most of the survey results are evenly matched and therefore inconclusive but there are some very interesting results for example:

More than 75% of users surveyed have made changes to their privacy settings.
More than 85% have accepted friend requests from people they do not know.
More than 75% of users surveyed understood that Facebook and Third Party applications will have access to their personal details.
The new privacy settings have yet to convince users that Facebook is safer, with more than 75% still undecided.
Discussion: Looking at each of these key results in turn:-
The majority of Facebook users have made changes to their privacy settings from this we could suppose that they had reason to make these changes either because they had experienced a privacy issue that is an invasion of privacy or decided that certain data of a particular and personal nature should not generally be made available in the public domain.
Facebook users are very trusting people, accepting friend requests from people they do not really know, although in some of these cases the friend request is initiated by Facebook usually by stating this person is friends with other people they do know, belong to the same groups or are fans of the same pages or people etc.
Trust again must play an integral part to the decision made by such a high percentage of users allowing applications access to their personal data, even though users do not know what these companies who write these applications will do with the data.
The new privacy settings have yet to make an impact with users as they are so new, but this position may change in time as users become more familiar with the new privacy settings.

3.3 News media discussion on privacy/trust

Reporting in the Telegraph on the 8th September 2009 – In a recent address to students at Wakefield High School, Barak Obama said and I quote “be careful what you post on Facebook. Whatever you do, it will be pulled up later in your life”.
There are many examples and instances of an inappropriate posting on Facebook leading to an undesirable course of action for instance the loss of a job, a reason why you may not get that job or it can even lead to a criminal prosecution. It is accepted that there are Privacy issues regarding what information third parties can find out about individuals from their personal data when conducting a search of Facebook profiles, they may not even need to have to access your personal information just a wall post containing inappropriate data.
One recent example of an inappropriate posting involved a teenager who posted onto her Facebook profile one weekend describing her job as being ‘boring, boring, boring’ she was summarily dismissed on the following Monday, the company arguing that she was obviously unhappy in her present role.
A report in The Times (online edition) 27th August 2009, identifies a problem with Facebooks privacy issues regarding an Applications access to personal data. Previously 3rd party Applications allowed by the user would have access to all the personal data held by the user on Facebook. In the face of pressure Facebook has agreed to improve security and force Applications to list what data they will access for instance birthday, geographical location etc. Future Privacy options will allow the user to set and restrict what data the Application will have access to.
From the above Media reports it is obvious that there is more than some concern about Facebook in particular, this combined with the overall concerns everyone has including Governments in regard to data security and privacy on the Internet. But it is Facebook which holds so much personal data and makes this data available in the public domain that catches the Medias interest the most, as they wait for the next big Privacy issue to unfold.

4.0 Conclusions

4.1 Privacy

4.11 Facebook Adverts

In November 2007 Facebook ads are introduced, targeting Facebookers with advertising drawn from the Facebookers own personal information. In operation there are similarities to the advertising model that Google uses that is Adwords. These adverts appear to the right of the home and profile pages; in fact they appear on most pages now growing as more tabs are added to the profile page. The adverts also change as the page is refreshed or by switching between tabs and pages.

It is this introduction of Facebook Ads which best highlights what Facebook is using a Facebookers data for and of course invading their privacy. The advertising is targeted to an individual’s personal information, their interests and even what their interests their friends list on their own profiles. For example if it listed on a profile that the user is single the advertising proliferates with offers from dating and matchmaking sites offering to find the user the partner of their dreams. Changing relationship details to any of the other options e.g. ‘In a relationship, Married etc. these adverts seem to magically disappear from a Facebookers profile and home pages.
Another example of targeted advertising is based on a Facebookers interests listed in their profiles, for example having website design listed as an interest the Facebooker could see advertising for web hosting and related web services for example books on website design.

But the most interesting use of data is that which is based upon a profiles age; if the Facebooker is for instance over a certain age the targeted advertising offers services such as laser eye correction, health insurance, sites offering mature singles matching (provided a users marital status is listed as single) and so on. Younger Facebook users see different targeted advertising to match their profile age. The targeted advertising now offers the sort of services the younger Facebookers are looking for such as online gaming, music events, the sale of CD’s and DVD’s etc.

Advertising an Invasion of Privacy. Referring to an article in The Times Online of 4th April 2008, Beacon an advertising tool which monitored Facebook users purchasing habits and then promoted this information to a Facebookers friends and others within their networks. This at the time immediately prompted invasion of privacy complaints and was quickly withdrawn. Although now withdrawn Facebook has not ruled out introducing a similar tool in the future although they have said they will be more cautious about introducing this in the future. The question left hanging here is have they already introduced another advertising and purchases monitoring tool without disclosure to Facebook users?

4.12    Facebook Applications and 3rd Party Applications

Facebook lists over 350,000 applications running on its platform with 250 having a million active monthly users. There are over a Million developers in over 180 countries and quote individuals and entrepreneurs’ developing applications, games, surveys and groups for the Facebook platform.
On the preceding page there is an example of the authorisation screen a Facebooker sees when adding an application or game to their profile, they are essentially allowing a third party access to both their own and their friends personal information and at the same time releasing Facebook from any responsibility for breaches in privacy and related issues under their Terms and Conditions.

4.2 Trust

Research leads to the belief that only time will tell us if these Social Networking sites are a good thing or something to be very wary off in regard to both Privacy issues and trust in them to protect an individual’s personal data. There are as many positives as there are negatives to using Facebook or indeed any social networking site. The users have to trust Facebook not to misuse the data they hold on their users and to manage the data responsibly and to continually enhance the security of their systems. Should they break or lose that trust then the whole fabric of the social networking media may well collapse and with it the fortunes of the companies themselves, the entrepreneurs and the investors that have invested time and money into Facebook and for the businesses that are built on the back of the Facebook platform and which of course generates their income and profits.

4.3 Recent events regarding privacy

Facebook changes its policy on Privacy putting the emphasis on creating individual settings for privacy. Thus allowing the user to decide who will see what information depending on which option they select when posting to a wall etc.

This was introduced soon after every user received an open letter from the Founder Mark Zuckerman announcing the move away from the original network model of friends and regional networks to this new privacy control method based on individual privacy settings.

As a user you now have the option of setting privacy settings for wall posts pictures and videos that you upload or link to on Facebook.
A small padlock has appeared next to the share button clicking on this will allow the user to set who can see the information they are posting onto their pages be it ‘Everyone’, ‘Friends of Friends’, Only Friends’ or ‘Customise’.

The main Privacy page has also been updated see Fig.8 this allows the user to either keep their original settings or to make changes. As this process is still being rolled out in stages some of the Privacy options are still being made available and are likely to change but initial changes seem to be going someway to resolving some of the privacy issues identified. One of the biggest is the move away from regional networks.
Joining a regional network in the past meant that technically you were sharing information freely with other members of that network. Bearing in mind that many networks contained thousands of members it would have been impossible to control which users had access to your information. Another benefit is marketing to large groups or people via a network is now not possible nor is searching for individuals within a network and so some measure privacy from marketers and possibly undesirable researchers are now blocked from finding you.
Referring back to the results of the online survey that is question 9, Facebook users appear to remain unconvinced whether their personal data is now safer under the new privacy controls than it was under the old system.
The new Privacy settings appear to resolve many of the issues that have been identified both by Facebook themselves, the external Press and some Governments etc. but there still remains many Privacy issues that will always be difficult to resolve and those are the ones that are left in control of the user. For instance referring back to the survey results more than 85% of users have accepted friend requests from people they do not know. With this in mind the majority of users are still allowing access to their personal data to unknown individuals or possibly companies posing as friends.

4.31 What has not changed?

What has not changed with the introduction of these new privacy settings is your agreement with Facebook on what they are able to use your data for.
For example Facebook state that some categories of data i.e. your name, a profile photo, your gender, friends and pages you are a fan of, where you live that is geographic region, and networks you belong to are considered publicly available to everyone, this includes Facebook applications, and therefore do not have privacy settings.’
With this in mind the change in Privacy settings seems somewhat irrelevant as the data which an individual would want to protect is not covered by this publicly available agreement, although you are able to control access to this information in the public domain by setting the search parameters in privacy settings.

Search Engines also have access to the Facebook site although Facebook does say that they limit this access to only the publicly available information that is held on you.
Facebook also states that in your agreement with them that should the company be sold or there is a change of ownership they will transfer your data to the new owner so that the business i.e. Facebook would continue to operate subject to existing Privacy agreements.

4.4 Final conclusions

In conclusion the only real way to protect personal data is down to the individual Facebook user being aware of the dangers of sharing and making personal data available in the public domain. For instance if the Facebook user does not put the information up on Facebook then the data is not there to be found. By limiting and controlling this information/data they are restricting what companies, individuals and organisations can learn about them the user, protecting their privacy and avoiding possibilities of identity theft etc.
Privacy controls on the internet are only as good as the designer can make them at the time and there any number of individual’s and organisations either legally or illegally seeking ways around these controls to data mine the information they want.
It is not in the interest of the user to supply in the public domain specific information such as exact date of birth, full address details or indeed their personal email address. It would be better to limit information to the correct day and month for birthdays but change the year + or – a year and in the case of geographic location certainly not supply a full home address. Finally it is easy to open a webmail address and so the user would be best advised to open one just for Facebook.
There is no doubt that 350 Million users put a lot of Trust in Facebook and it’s ability to protect a users Privacy and Facebook needs to continually evolve introducing greater Privacy controls in order to be able to continue to ensure the Privacy of this data. For should they fail in this then the very idea of Social Networking itself may fail, losing the Trust of millions of users across the globe and the eventual failure of the business.


Primary Sources
Facebook Users Online Survey and Questionnaire
Ian Hunt, The Hunt Family, Fabiene Barber, Carolyn Castagnari, Stella James and others.

Secondary Sources
Councils ban Facebook – 12:17 GMT, Tuesday, 1 September 2009 [Accessed December 2009]

Facebook pages
Press [Accessed December 2009]
Statistics [Accessed December 2009]
Timeline [Accessed December 2009]
Safety [Accessed December 2009]

Facebook press release – $200 Million investment in Facebook – Digital Sky Technologies [Accessed December 2009]

Cade Metz. Facebook value plummets $5bn [Accessed December 2009]

By JPOST.COM STAFF  Syrian gov’t blocks use of Facebook
Jerusalem Post – Nov 24, 2007 11:05 | Updated Nov 24, 2007 11:59 [Accessed December 2009]

By Lester Haines – Teen sacked for ‘boring’ job Facebook comment
Posted in Bootnotes, 26th February 2009 15:54 GMT [Accessed December 2009]

Nielsen report unattributed [Accessed December 2009]

By BRAD STONE – Facebook to Settle Thorny Lawsuit Over Its Origins
The New York Times – Published April 7, 2008, 8:46 am [Accessed December 2009]

Barack Obama gives Facebook advice ahead of education speech
Telegraph – Published: 10:02PM BST 08 Sep 2009 [Accessed December 2009]

Times Online August 27, 2009
Facebook to tighten privacy policies and give users more control over personal data [Accessed December 2009]

Times Online April 4, 2008
Q&A: Chris Kelly, chief privacy officer of Facebook [Accessed December 2009]

Vander Veer, E.A. 2008. O’Reilly Media Inc. Facebook the Missing Manual. California:
Abraham, C and Pearlman, L. 2008. Wiley Publishing Inc. Facebook for Dummies. Indiana:

6.0 Appendix

The following pages are offered in support to the data, results and conclusions contained in the research project.


Film Studies – Fight Club

Fight Club

Slide 1: Titles ‘Fight Club’
PowerPoint Presentation Slide Notes – Fight Club
Title: Welcome to Jack and Tyler’s Mind
Film: Fight Club
Sequence: 00:34:32 to 00:44:21 (Fight Club DVD released in 2000)
Film Studies Assignment –  Analyse a 10 minute sequence of a film of your choice.


Slide 2
Fight Club Screenshot 34:32 Special Edition DVD

Fight Club Screenshot 34:32 Special Edition DVD

Fight Club – The sequence that I have chosen to analyse encompass Chapters 14 & 15 from the year 2000 DVD of the film Fight Club directed by David Fincher who also directed Alien3, Se7en etc. The two main characters are:- Jack also known as the Narrator is played by Edward Norton and the second main character Tyler Durden is played by Brad Pitt. I will confine my analysis to camera angles, lighting and mise en scene and how the director uses these to distinguish between Jacks mind state i.e. whether we are seeing the world through Jack or Tyler’s eyes. So I’m not going to analyse the inherent references to masculinity, sexuality and references to pornography that exist throughout the film.

Fight Club Screenshot 34:59 Special Edition DVD

Fight Club Screenshot 34:59 Special Edition DVD

Setting the plot i.e. the exposition Jack works for an automobile company a job he obviously hates, Jacks’ only aim is to be the owner of everything in an IKEA catalogue. He is unable to sleep and he spends his waking life travelling on behalf of his company across the US by plane to investigate crashes/deaths caused by defects in the automobiles manufactured by his employer.

Slide 3


Fight Club Screenshot 35:14 Special Edition DVD

Fight Club Screenshot 35:14 Special Edition DVD

The chance meeting on a plane introduces us to Tyler Durden, who is in fact Jacks alto ego. Jack is a schizophrenic and his alto ego Tyler Durden we presume has control of Jacks body during the night or whenever he cannot sleep.

Synopsis of Sequence


This sequence also introduces the audience to the different worlds that Tyler Durden and Jack inhabit. It also introduces the audience to the initial formation of Fight Club, its development and as it grows into becoming an organised and violent institution. We will see the differences between Jacks two personalities, Jack the conformist and Tyler the anarchist.

Fight Club Screenshot 35:28 Special Edition DVD

Fight Club Screenshot 35:28 Special Edition DVD

The opening scene of this ten minute sequence begins with the camera at a high angle looking down in wide shot following Jack and Tyler as they walk down a dark and wet street towards Tyler’s house, this is  where Jack is to stay following the destruction of his own apartment in a gas explosion. (Which we later learn he did himself in his Tyler persona)

Slide 4


Fight Club Screenshot 35:23 Special Edition DVD

Fight Club Screenshot 35:23 Special Edition DVD

This is our first introduction to Tyler’s World the dark side of Jacks existence, as mentioned previously Tyler has control of Jacks body when night falls/sleep escapes him. The lighting and camera angles have many elements of Film Noir, its dark, the streets are wet and there are shadows with many areas remaining unlit. It’s a menacing environment, threatening with a suggestion of violence and therefore preparing the audience for the violence that is to come.

Fight Club Screenshot 36:04 Special Edition DVD

Fight Club Screenshot 36:04 Special Edition DVD

With the camera in wide shot we are introduced to the interior of Tyler’s house, which continues this dark Noir type theme, its run down, the plumbing and electricity have problems and the roof leaks. It’s here that the character of Tyler is further explored, where he’s shown to be the polar opposite of Jacks environment. Totally removed from Jacks Ikea catalogued environment, which is ordered and conformist. Tyler wants to destroy the corporate world, tear down the world of the consumer with its Ikea catalogues.

Slide 5


Fight Club Screenshot 36:34 Special Edition DVD

Fight Club Screenshot 36:34 Special Edition DVD

This change of environment, the change in mise en scene further emphasises the differences between Tyler and Jack. Jacks apartment was well lighted, ordered, and uncluttered looking just as if it had come straight from the Ikea catalogue. Tyler’s environment is the opposite, it’s poorly lighted, cluttered and dirty and the property is obviously in need of major repairs, in fact it’s most probably a condemned building that Tyler has taken over.

Fight Club Screenshot 36:46 Special Edition DVD

Fight Club Screenshot 36:46 Special Edition DVD

In the next scene, shot in wide angle is of the street fight between Jack and Tyler in a car park outside a bar, which is witnessed by two men who themselves exude menace and potential violence as they come out of the bar. We are back in Tyler’s dark world full of menace and violence and it’s here in this scene that the idea of Fight Club is introduced.

Slide 6


Fight Club Screenshot 37:20 Special Edition DVD

Fight Club Screenshot 37:20 Special Edition DVD

The director then cuts to a scene showing Jack and his boss in the men’s toilet at work, we notice how the lighting changes again, its daylight but colourised with blue which in later scenes is described as a cornflower blue (a reference is made to Jacks bosses tie as being cornflower blue) this is how the director (Editor?) has chosen to distinguish and therefore create this theme separating Jacks world from Tyler’s world of darkness, menace and violence.

Fight Club Screenshot 37:24 Special Edition DVD

Fight Club Screenshot 37:24 Special Edition DVD

Fincher then cuts back again to Tyler’s world, this time to a fight scene shot once again in the bars car park, there are more spectators and they are willing to participate in a fight, to become part of Tyler’s vision for Fight Club. The cameras low angle shot and the lighting from above adds to the audiences feeling of the darkness and the menace of the scene as the violent fight scene is shot.

Slide 7


Fight Club Screenshot 38:02 Special Edition DVD

Fight Club Screenshot 38:02 Special Edition DVD

The next scene camera in wide shot continues the theme of the chaos and the anarchy of Tyler’s world as we see the main characters practising their golf swing in a dilapidated and run down area where they are now living.

In a poorly lighted cluttered interior scene, shot in close up, Jacks madness is further explored as we see him reading journals by torchlight, which also seems to be written by some o ne also called Jack (No coincidence). We the audience would interpret the author as being himself although Jack disassociates himself from writing them, so he obviously has no memory of writing these journals and cannot recognise himself as being the protagonist in these journals.

Fight Club Screenshot 39:48 Special Edition DVD

Fight Club Screenshot 39:48 Special Edition DVD

As the director cuts back to Jacks world (cornflower blue) we see Jack in a meeting at work, it’s now obvious that Tyler’s personality is leaking through into Jacks world as he reveals his bloodied teeth to his colleagues at the meeting.

For the first time in this scene the menace and violence of Tyler’s world is brought into Jacks. The audience is left with the impression that Tyler’s personality is gradually taking over.

Slide 8


Fight Club Screenshot 40:07 Special Edition DVD

Fight Club Screenshot 40:07 Special Edition DVD

Cutting back again to Tyler’s world, Fight Club membership has grown and is now more organised as the audience POV follows the camera movements (stedicam) which tracks Tyler and Jack as they go inside the bar to greet their fellow members. The bar scene is darkly lighted and feels menacing as Fight Club members acknowledge each other in preparation for this evenings fights.

Tyler lays out the rules of Fight Club to its members in the dark basement/cellar of the bar as the camera moves around the room revealing the faces and postures of the members, which all adds to the menace of the scene and is a prelude to the violence to come.

Fight Club Screenshot 40:18 Special Edition DVD

Fight Club Screenshot 40:18 Special Edition DVD

It’s yet another example of the difference between Jacks and Tyler’s individual personalities, Jack is reserved and is generally seen as a participant in these scenes whereas Tyler is an extrovert and takes the lead in these situations.

Slide 9


Fight Club Screenshot 40:38 Special Edition DVD

Fight Club Screenshot 40:38 Special Edition DVD

Jacks narration in this sequence identifies individuals that he knows from work, who are generally similar to himself, reserved and unassuming at work but becoming something much more when they fight, to quote ‘becomes a god for 10 minutes’.

The director at the end of this fight scene cuts back to Jacks world where he is shown at work in a typical office environment as he sees the fighter from the previous night pushing a mail trolley through the office. They acknowledge each other but do not speak; they share a secret, the world of Tyler’s Fight Club. The scene is lighted once again in this cornflower blue so that the audience can identify that we are in Jacks world again.

Fight Club Screenshot 41:07 Special Edition DVD

Fight Club Screenshot 41:07 Special Edition DVD

The director cuts back to another fight scene this time involving Tyler, he’s surrounded by members of Fight Club who encourage their chosen fighters to excel, the dark lighting adds again to the menace, blood lust of the fighters and their supporters as the camera follows the action around the room. The scene ends with a close up of Jack who smiles his approval as Tyler wins his fight.

Slide 10


Fight Club Screenshot 42:10 Special Edition DVD

Fight Club Screenshot 42:10 Special Edition DVD

In the next scene, with the camera at a low angle again, the roles are reversed with Jack fighting to the encouragement of his fellow members of Fight Club, as Jack loses his fight the director shoots a close-up of Jacks face as he lies face down on the floor ending the scene.

Fight Club Screenshot 42:23 Special Edition DVD

Fight Club Screenshot 42:23 Special Edition DVD

In this ten minute sequence the director has introduced the audience to the core details of Fight Club; he has also set the theme for both Jack and Tyler’s worlds which in turn represent Jacks state of mind. For instance when he’s Jack the mise en scene is generally brightly lighted with this cornflower blue colourised effect and the mise en scene is usually of an office environment lighted by fluorescents. However when he’s in his Tyler persona the world is in direct contrast Jacks, it’s dark, full of menace and violence. The scene is usually of a dark and wet street or a cluttered interior or exterior of a dilapidated building.

Slide 11


Fight Club Screenshot 42:29 Special Edition DVD

Fight Club Screenshot 42:29 Special Edition DVD

In general, depending on which world we are in Jacks or Tyler’s, the camera angles and type of shot also changes to match, for instance in the fight scenes they tend to be shot at low or high angle to establish dominance of one fighter over another, rarely is the camera at eye level in these scenes. In contrast when we are in Jacks world, eye level camera angles dominate.
This sets a template for the rest of the film, the recurring image of Dark versus Light as we switch between Tyler’s and Jacks worlds.

Fight Club Screenshot 43:12 Special Edition DVD

Fight Club Screenshot 43:12 Special Edition DVD

The audience is also drawn into Jacks state of mind which changes from being an introvert whose only excitement in his life was his next purchase from Ikea, to being more of an extrovert, therefore  becoming more like Tyler Durden the anarchist and entering his more exciting life of violence and rebellion against everything corporate or  establishment.

Slide 12


Fight Club Screenshot 44:02 Special Edition DVD

Fight Club Screenshot 44:02 Special Edition DVD

This change in character and mind set is most obvious in the scenes where Jacks world and mindset has elements of Tyler’s. For example when we see Jacks injuries from the fights and Jacks general deterioration in personal appearance.

Fight Club Screenshot 44:21 Special Edition DVD

Fight Club Screenshot 44:21 Special Edition DVD

When for example we see him at work, his shirts have become dirty and un-ironed, the tie has not been tightened and it’s not straight, he is becoming more dishevelled, less conformist as the film progresses and becoming in turn more like his schizophrenic persona Tyler Durden.







(Number of Words 2032 including titles)


Moving Image – Short Film Script ‘Homeless’

Short Film Script

Short Film Script based on ‘Childhoods Hour’



Peter:              A 30+ homeless man and alcoholic looking at an early grave

Ann Charity worker caring for the homeless.

Opening Scene 1

‘Outside scene homeless man sitting on a step in front of a doorway’

(mid wide shot)

Peter a recently homeless man (not too disheveled) sits on a step drinking from a bottle in a brown paper bag or supermarket plastic bag. (Turn a Tesco Bag inside out.

(move to close up)

He looks directly at the camera and begins to talk about his past life and how he got to where he is now.

Peter:               I had it all, a good life, good friends and a girl I hoped to marry and I lost it all.

I’d always enjoyed a drink, just 1 or 2 after work, I could handle it, no problem and then the Banks screwed up and ruined it for everyone.

(Even closer)

Fuck the Banks and their greed.

(zoom out – back to a close up)

That was the beginning of the end, first the job went and my girl soon followed as the drink took hold.

But I didn’t care the drink saw to that, nothing mattered any more only the drink and where the next drink comes from.

(wide angle shot of doorway)

Scene 2 ‘Outside doorway’

(A women appears and crouches down next to Peter)

(mid close up)

Ann:                Hello Peter how are you?

(reverse shot)

Peter:               I’m fine, go away, and leave me be.

(reverse shot)

Ann:                We were worried about you; you’ve not been to the shelter for weeks now.

(reverse shot)

Peter:               I said I’m fine, now go away

(reverse shot)

Ann:                You’re not fine you look ill, have you eaten anything

Peter:               I’m having breakfast now ( raises the bottle to his lips )

(reverse shot)

Ann:                Look come with me to the shelter, have something to eat and get warm

(reverse shot)

Peter:               I’m fine, maybe I’ll come along later, now just leave me alone can’t you.

(reverse shot)

Ann:                Ok Peter but come soon. (Ann looks wistful and leaves )

(close up)

Peter looks directly again at the camera

Peter:               Interfering cow why can’t they leave me be, I mean if I wanted their help I’d ask them for it wouldn’t I.

I mean it’s not if I am alone is it, Dave’s sitting right next to me he’s all right is Dave always getting the drink for me and never touching it himself.

Sometimes he does get me into trouble when he steals or begs for the drink but that’s all right. He’s a good mate is Dave.

Peter takes another drink (mid wide shot) End Scene

Scene 3 ‘Office Location’

(mid wide shot) of office Ann looks directly at the camera

(Close up)

Ann:                Peter, yes it’s very sad, we tried everything we could to help him but in the end ‘I could not awaken’ him.

It’s very unfortunate but some of them just do not want our help.

Since the Banks caused all this trouble more and more of the people we see on the streets are just like Peter.

(Even closer)

Fuck the Banks and their greed.

(Zoom out mid wide shot of the office and Ann)

End Scene

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